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The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS), also known as Daesh, is a notorious jihadist militant group that gained global attention for its extreme ideology, brutal tactics, and high-profile acts of terrorism. This article aims to provide a comprehensive overview of ISIS, covering its establishment history, key personalities, organizational structure, and notable attack events.

Establishment History

ISIS traces its roots to the aftermath of the U.S.-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. Emerging from the remnants of Al-Qaeda in Iraq, the group was officially founded in 2006 by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi. Originally named the Islamic State of Iraq (ISI), the organization aimed to establish a Sunni Islamic state encompassing parts of Iraq and Syria.

Personalities and Positions

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi

Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the founding leader of ISIS, played a pivotal role in the organization’s rise to prominence. He declared himself the caliph and leader of all Muslims in 2014, renaming the group the Islamic State. Al-Baghdadi’s leadership was marked by extreme brutality, with the group committing numerous atrocities and gaining international notoriety.

Leadership Structure

ISIS operated under a hierarchical structure with various leaders overseeing specific regions and functions. The Shura Council, composed of senior leaders, made strategic decisions, while provincial governors managed day-to-day operations in specific territories. The group also had specialized units, such as the infamous Al-Hisbah morality police and the Amniyat intelligence service.

Attack Events

ISIS gained global attention through its high-profile and brutal acts of terrorism. Some of the most notable events include:

Mosul Takeover (2014)

ISIS shocked the world by capturing the Iraqi city of Mosul in 2014, marking a turning point in the group’s expansion and influence.

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Paris Attacks (2015)

In November 2015, coordinated attacks across Paris left 130 people dead and hundreds injured. ISIS claimed responsibility, further solidifying its reputation for orchestrating large-scale acts of terror.

Raqqa Operations (2017)

The liberation of Raqqa, the de facto capital of the self-proclaimed Islamic State, marked a significant defeat for the group as international forces, including the Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF), successfully reclaimed the city.

Decline and Current Status

In recent years, a combination of international military efforts, counter-terrorism operations, and internal strife has led to a decline in ISIS’s territorial control and influence. The death of Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi in 2019 and the appointment of new leaders have also impacted the group’s cohesion.


While the physical caliphate of ISIS has diminished, the threat posed by the organization persists. Understanding its history, leadership, and notorious actions is crucial for policymakers, security forces, and the global community in addressing the ongoing challenges posed by this extremist group.

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One thought on “Everything about ISIS: Establishment to Present”
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